The surplus totalled 1.38 trillion yen ($12.4bn; $7bn) before seasonal adjustments, the finance ministry said.
Current account data measures the flow of goods, services and other financial transfers.
Weaker demand from Asia – and in particularly China – hit exports, a key driver of the Japan’s economy.
Japan’s trade surplus slumped 57.4% to 474.3bn yen, while exports rose just 1.7% to 4.58 trillion yen, official figures showed.
“The current account surplus fell sharply as import growth far outpaced export growth due to a rise in oil prices,” a finance ministry official said.
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